Every day engines become more powerful and more economical. Currently, there are power units with multiple valves and a pair of camshafts, turbocharging. Such engines make it possible to significantly increase power with a small increase in fuel consumption.
In order for a turbocharged gasoline engine to function normally, a special lubricant must be poured into it.Content
Pros and cons of turbo engines
The turbo engine has high power with a small cylinder block size. The compression in the combustion chamber of a turbo engine is quite high. In view of this, the mixture of fuel and air burns out completely.
The turbine contains two elements - a rotor and a compressor. When the engine is running, black exhaust is emitted. Gases, getting under compression into the rotor, spin the turbocharger, act on the turbine blades. Only then does the exhaust enter the muffler.
When the rotor shaft rotates, it starts the compressor, which pumps air into the combustion chamber, increasing the pressure by thirty to eighty percent. This allows the mixture of fuel and air to burn to the end, increasing power.
The main advantage of a turbo internal combustion engine is, of course, an increase in power. However, this plus hides a minus. How many revolutions do you think are needed for the effect of turbocharging to become noticeable? An increase in power can only be achieved at high speeds (3500-4500).
Up to this threshold, a turbine engine will function almost the same as a conventional engine. The turbine at low speeds will not receive the required rotation speed. This effect is called “turbojam”.
To prevent this, manufacturers deliberately reduce the pressure in the turbo engine to the level of a conventional engine. This solution makes it possible to slightly reduce the temperature in the combustion chambers.
To prevent detonation, the fuel poured into turbo engines must be of high quality (like car oil), and have a good octane rating.
Another significant disadvantage is that the turbo engine wears out faster than a conventional internal combustion engine. Why is this happening? The answer is simple. The high temperature of the exhaust from the combustion chambers (1000-1500 degrees Celsius) makes the turbines red hot.Might be interesting: What are the criteria for choosing engine oil for turbocharged diesel engines?
How to properly operate turbo engines
In order to maximize the operating period of a turbo engine, special rules must be followed:
Compositions of motor oils
Automotive oils contain several elements: a base fluid and additives, on which the performance characteristics of petroleum products depend. Currently, lubricants are divided into mineral, synthetic and semi-synthetic.
Mineral water is synthesized from "black gold" - oil. Semi-synthetics are made by combining mineral and synthetic petroleum products. Synthetic oil for turbocharged gasoline engines is made in the laboratory.
Additives have different purposes. They can be:
What kind of oil to pour into a turbo engine? In such a motor, it is necessary to fill in only synthetics.
Classifications of motor oils
SAE is considered the standard of the Society of Automotive Engineers of the United States. According to this classification, all oils are divided according to their viscosity. The marking looks like "5w30". The 1st number indicates the lowest temperature at which the car oil can pass through the ICE oil channels and crank the power unit. The following designations are accepted:
It depends on the climatic conditions which lubricant is suitable for filling in the internal combustion engine. For example, in Sochi it is possible to pour 15w or 20w all year round, since there is no severe cold there. For cities located in the north, 0w, 5w is suitable.
Recommended reading: Engine oil 20w40 - characteristics
High temperature viscosity is indicated by the 2nd number. It can be in the range from 20 to 60. The characteristics of the lubricating film that forms on the contacting parts depend on the viscosity.
Too thin a film suitable for new engines with minimal gaps between spare parts. However, the chance of film rupture is very high. If this happens, the motor will run dry.
This will lead to increased wear of parts. The most resistant film is formed by oils with a viscosity of 50 and 60. Remember that the best turbo oil is the one recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.
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The US Petroleum Institute standard is very common among auto oil manufacturers. According to this classification, all oily fluids are divided into two categories - gasoline (S) and diesel (C). These letters are at the beginning of the marking. They are followed by a lubricant quality designation (A-N).Read also: API CF
SA-SH oils are already obsolete. They were used before, before 1994, they are only suitable for older engines. SJ-SN oils are currently used. They are suitable for motors manufactured after 1997.
Many motor oils produced today can be poured into both gasoline internal combustion engines and diesel power units. Such petroleum products are marked with letters with a slash, for example, SF/CC.
What kind of lubricant to choose for filling in a turbo engine? The best option is SN, SM. These are modern petroleum products that are suitable for engines with many valves and a turbine. They are energy saving and durable.Might be interesting: Neste pro c3 5w40 engine oil: review, reviews and prices
This classification was created by the Society of European Machine Manufacturers in 1996. It divides all oily fluids into three groups: A / B, C, E. A / B is intended for cars.
Each letter is followed by a number (A1/B1). The larger it is, the better the quality of the lubricant. A consumable that is poured into an engine with a turbocharger must have high protective characteristics and low viscosity. This makes it possible to reduce friction losses and increase the environmental friendliness of the engine. The best lubricant is A5/B5.
This classification is similar to API. For example, ISLAC GL-3 car oil is no different from API SL. The larger the number in the marking, the higher the performance of the lubricating fluid poured into the power unit of the vehicle.